The heartbroken family of the late musician Stevie Martin, also known as ‘Rainy Boy Sleep’ have launched an appeal for help in order to find a tattoo artist. The talented musician was reported missing after his car was found abandoned at Fanad Lighthouse, his body was discovered weeks later close to Co. Sligo.Mr Martin had a tattoo on his chest, but due to the condition of his body when he was found, the tattoo was only partially visible . The quote read, ‘Hope is to enrich, that no……’It is not known what the full quote was, and his mother is desperate to track down the artist as she wants to get the quote tattooed on her.Ms Martin, who is from Lifford in Donegal, contacted tattoo studio Belfast City Skinworks for help, and the shop has since spread the appeal for information to its thousands of followers – but so far the full phrase, and the artist behind it, remains a mystery.Skinworks owner Donal Kelly told The Irish News,”So far we have had a lot of suggestions about what the full quote might be, but nothing concrete to go on. “Since we put this out online, the response has been phenomenal, but we still don’t know who the tattoo artist was, or what the tattoo read.“As Stevie was a lyricist, it’s possible the words were something he came up with himself. Someone out there must know what it read, or who did it.”“If we can find out, we would be happy to offer Stevie’s mother this tattoo for free, as it would be a wonderful tribute to her very talented son.”Family of the late musician ‘Rainy Boy Sleep’ appeal for help was last modified: September 28th, 2016 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
Can rice grow in South Africa? The South African agricultural sector could soon add rice to its list of crops cultivated locally. South Africa’s next major grain crop Rice has never been produced commercially in the country. According to the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), 90% of the world’s rice is cultivated in South, Southeast, and East Asia. Rice processing facilities are not available in South Africa yet, but talks are underway with a local financier about investment to build such a facility. “This is an amazing project and a very exciting prospect for South African agriculture,” says local businessman Hennie Kruger, who is spearheading a rice cultivation project in South Africa. A local seed company is looking into importing the rice seed initially, but in the near future the company would like to start seed selection on rice. Kruger estimates that within three years South Africa could have its own seed and the industry could be established commercially. He says that there is a common misconception that rice can only grow in watery paddy fields. However, because northern hemisphere agricultural countries receive much more rain than South Africa, crops such as rice are often grown in water. After harvest, the rice grain undergoes a number of processes depending on how it will be used. Such methods include, drying, storing, milling, and processing. First published by MediaClubSouthAfrica.com – get free high-resolution photos and professional feature articles from Brand South Africa’s media service. In these environments, rice yields are low and extremely variable because of soil problems and unpredictable combinations of drought and flood. One fifth of the world’s population depends on rice cultivation for their livelihoods. According to Kruger, the absence of local rice plantings does not mean it can’t be produced successfully in South Africa. Kruger says that with well-managed irrigation, rice can be grown in many areas across South Africa, such as Kwa-Zulu Natal, the western areas of the Free State province and even as far north as Thabazimbi in Limpopo province. The IRRI confirms that rice production under irrigation is viable. The irrigated rice environment accounts for about half of the harvested rice area and contributes 75% of global rice production. Globally, rice is grown in more than a hundred countries with a total harvested area of nearly 160-million hectares, producing more than 700-million tons every year. Seed and production facilities “This is a very positive development for the country and there are many farmers interested in growing rice.” He says that about 10 years ago, studies by the Agricultural Research Council found rice to be a crop worth cultivating. “When grown under irrigation the crop responds beautifully,” he says. He says that as rice is a cereal grain summer crop, many grain farmers would be interested in growing rice as a means to diversify their farming operations. Local production will also reduce the country’s reliance on rice imports. South Africa imports two-million tons of the staple each year. According to the IRRI, flood-prone rice producing ecosystems need special rice varieties that are suited to flooded environments. These rice plants must be adapted to conditions such as deep water, flash floods that could last longer than 10 days, salinity in low-lying coastal areas and problem soils. 22 December 2011 Worldwide, about 80-million hectares of rice are grown in irrigated areas. High-yielding areas of irrigated rice can be found in China, Egypt, Japan, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Republic of Korea, and the Senegal River Valley in Africa. “Our farmers should produce much of the rice we need. It could become a major grain crop in South Africa,” says Kruger. Recent commercial planting trials carried out by six farmers across the country yielded promising results. “The trials show that rice does not have to be cultivated in water-logged fields. It can be planted in any soil, provided the soil contains 15% clay,” explains Kruger. The South African economy and agricultural sector can benefit significantly from introducing another grain crop, says Kruger.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Barry Allred, USDA Research Agricultural Engineer and Greg Rouse, GIS Coordinator, Ross County Soil and Water Conservation District To improve the soil water removal efficiency of drained farmland, and thereby increase crop yields, new drain lines are often installed between pre-existing drain lines. Retrofitting an agricultural subsurface drainage system in this manner requires accurate maps of the drainage pipe that is already in place. Repairing poorly functioning portions of a subsurface drainage system likewise requires an accurate field map of the drainage pipe network. Furthermore, to better evaluate the overall environmental risk of nitrate and phosphate release into the environment from farm fields, the intensity of subsurface drainage practices within an agricultural landscape needs to estimated, which can be accomplished if drainage pipe maps of the area are available. Consequently, there are both economic and environmental benefits to finding effective and efficient methods for mapping agricultural subsurface drainage systems. New methods for finding drainage pipes are neededAlthough there has been considerable drainage pipe installation activity within Ohio and the Midwest U.S. recently, a substantial amount of the in place drainage pipe is much older, having been installed 30, 50, or even 100 years ago. In most cases, a map of the original subsurface drainage system installation is no longer available. Finding drain lines with heavy trenching equipment causes pipe damage requiring costly repairs, while the alternative of using a hand-held tile probe is both time consuming and extremely tedious. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has proven capable of locating buried drainage pipe under a range of soil conditions; however, GPR is somewhat inefficient for providing detailed maps of subsurface drainage systems in large farm fields. Aerial imagery obtained by drones may offer a solutionDrones capable of obtaining thermal infrared imagery may have the capacity for effective and efficient drainage pipe mapping. Differences in soil moisture directly over a drain line versus between drain lines lead to differences in the emitted heat energy directly over a drain line versus between drain lines. These differences in the emitted heat energy can be detected with thermal infrared cameras, thereby providing indications of drainage pipe locations. Drones allow the flexibility of obtaining thermal infrared imagery when field conditions are favorable for mapping drain lines. Scientists from the USDA/Agricultural Research Service — Soil Drainage Research Unit (USDA/ARS-SDRU) and the Ross County (Ohio) Soil and Water Conservation District (RCSWCD) have initiated a study using a drone with a thermal infrared camera to map subsurface drainage in agricultural settings. Although the study has just begun, initial results appear promising. As a whole, that under these conditions, thermal infrared imagery obtained with a drone worked fairly well delineating drain lines.This is the as-built map of the subsurface drainage system with the area covered by the thermal infrared orthomosaic outlined in red.To obtain the required resolution to produce these thermal infrared orthomosaics, it is oftentimes necessary to fly the UAV at lower altitudes, which creates an extremely large number of individual images. For example, the thermal orthomosaic overlay consists of around 2,000 images. Within the entire field, well over 7,500 thermal images were obtained. Those types of numbers create potential issues for the software’s ability to create a useful thermal infrared orthomosic. Processing this large amount of data can take several hours, or even a full day. Currently, there are very few software vendors that have the ability to create these orthomosaics from thermal imagery. To further complicate the issue, most appear to only support one or two thermal cameras. Hopefully this will change as the technology progresses. Future investigationBased on this initial drone survey, drainage pipe mapping with thermal infrared imagery certainly exhibits promise, but further research is definitely warranted. USDA/ARS-SDRU and RCSWCD scientists plan to conduct further thermal infrared drones surveys at a number of different field sites having different soil types, crop residue, and tillage practices. Additionally, at each site, thermal infrared drone surveys will be carried out under a range of field wetness levels. The project goal will be to develop guidelines as to when and where thermal infrared drone surveys can be employed to map agricultural subsurface drainage systems. Barry Allred is a Research Agricultural Engineer for the USDA – Agricultural Research Service Soil Drainage Research Unit at 590 Woody Hayes Drive Columbus, Ohio 43210. He can be reached at [email protected] Greg Rouse is the GIS Coordinator for Ross County Soil and Water Conservation District at Ross County Service Center 475 Western Avenue, Suite H Chillicothe, Ohio 45601. He can be reached at [email protected]
Explore further Prior work in designing a rhodium-based catalyst for a reaction that has a similar carbon-hydrogen activation step was adapted with an ethylene coordinated to the rhodium complex. The ligand framework likely serves to protect rhodium from oxidative damage and may serve other important functions in the mechanism. With this ligand serving to protect the metal, they decided to use a Cu(II) salt as an oxidant because there is precedent for the recovery of Cu(I) and re-oxidizing it to obtain Cu(II), thus enabling the possibility of recycling the oxidant.Testing of their catalyst with Cu(OAc)2 at 150oC in benzene led to 58 to 62 turnovers in twenty-four hours. Characterization showed high selectivity for styrene, and the copper salt as the limiting reagent. The reaction was optimized by testing various copper salts, temperatures, and concentration of ethylene gas. Cu(OAc)2, while it causes a slower reaction rate than other copper salts, provided a more stable reaction process. Additionally, while the reaction rate did increase with increasing temperature, the catalyst degraded when the temperature was above 180oC. Finally, the reaction rate increased as ethylene pressure was increased.The optimized reaction conditions provided a near-quantitative yield of styrene with a large turnover number for the catalyst, and the catalyst maintained its integrity for up to 96 hours. The best turnover number observed was at least 800. Kinetic studies showed that this reaction appears to be first-order with respect to ethylene concentration, which is unique to this particular catalyst. Additional kinetic studies revealed that there is a kinetic isotope effect with kH/kD ~ 3.1, which is consistent with other transition metal-mediated C-H activation reactions. While further studies need to be done to analyze the reaction mechanism, this paper provides a framework by which a novel rhodium complex allows for a one-step reaction to form styrene from benzene and ethylene. (Phys.org)—Styrene is an important industrial chemical. It is the precursor to polystyrene which is used in various every day plastic products, like disposable cups, packaging, and insulation. Over 18.5m tons of styrene is produced industrially around the world. Typically, styrene synthesis begins with benzene and ethylene, and involves a multi-step process under harsh reaction conditions and often leads to unwanted by-products. More information: “A rhodium catalyst for single-step styrene production from benzene and ethylene” Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa2260ABSTRACTRising global demand for fossil resources has prompted a renewed interest in catalyst technologies that increase the efficiency of conversion of hydrocarbons from petroleum and natural gas to higher-value materials. Styrene is currently produced from benzene and ethylene through the intermediacy of ethylbenzene, which must be dehydrogenated in a separate step. The direct oxidative conversion of benzene and ethylene to styrene could provide a more efficient route, but achieving high selectivity and yield for this reaction has been challenging. Here, we report that the Rh catalyst (FlDAB)Rh(TFA)(η2–C2H4) [FlDAB is N,N′-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA is trifluoroacetate] converts benzene, ethylene, and Cu(II) acetate to styrene, Cu(I) acetate, and acetic acid with 100% selectivity and yields ≥95%. Turnover numbers >800 have been demonstrated, with catalyst stability up to 96 hours. © 2015 Phys.org Journal information: Science In research that aims to streamline and optimize styrene synthesis Benjamin A. Vaughan, Michael S. Webster-Gardiner, Thomas R. Cundari, and T. Brent Gunnoe from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Virginia and the Center for Advanced Modeling in the Department of Chemistry at the University of North Texas have devised a single-step synthesis of styrene using a novel rhodium catalyst. Their work appears in Science.The production of styrene, or vinyl arenes in general, involves benzene alkylation. This is typically done under harsh conditions involving high temperatures and either a Friedel-Crafts or zeolite catalyst. This process typically involves poly-alkylated bi-products. Additionally, the alkyl substituent will then need to be oxidized to form the vinyl group, which is usually accomplished with a metal oxide at high temperatures. The products are the target vinyl arene and hydrogen gas, as well as any bi-products from poly-alkylation. Products from poly-alkylation are converted to ethylbenzene in a trans-alkylation step, which follows the alkylation reaction.Prior research from this group, found that this synthetic process can be streamlined using a platinum catalyst for the alkylation of benzene, and the alkyl group will subsequently undergo beta-hydride elimination, forming free styrene. However, this process degrades the platinum catalyst, likely because the platinum ion further reduces to platinum metal during the beta-elimination phase of the reaction. To make this one-step process industrially feasible, they need to find an optimal catalyst. Ideally, this catalyst would directly vinylate the benzene ring rather than initial alkylation followed by oxidation of the alkyl group. Additionally this catalyst would not lead to multiple side reactions and have a high turnover number even in harsh oxidative conditions and in the presence of highly reactive metal hydrides. Furthermore, industrially favorable mechanisms would involve recovering and recycling the oxidant using air or oxygen.For this paper, Vaughan et al. designed a catalyst with rhodium rather than platinum in hopes that the less favorable reduction of Rh(I) to elemental rhodium compared to the reduction of Pt(II) would maintain the integrity of the catalyst. Ball-and-stick model of the styrene molecule, C8H8, as found in the crystal structure. Credit: Ben Mills/public domain Study could lead to improved catalysts for producing hydrogen fuel from waste biomass This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Novel catalyst used to make styrene in one step (2015, May 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-catalyst-styrene.html
Whether your goal is overall weight loss or better overall health, researchers recommend snacking on peanuts or peanut butter, three to four times a week.According to a new study, teenagers at high risk for being overweight or obese reduced their Body Mass Index (BMI) when they adhered to a nutrition intervention that included a snack of peanuts, compared to those children who did not.“Obesity is the most pressing health issue facing us today,” said Craig Johnston from University of Houston in the US. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“We’d like to think it’s preventable, but from where I sit right now, there hasn’t been a lot shown to be very effective on a large scale,” Johnston added in the paper published in the Journal of Applied Research on Children.The study acknowledged that snacking is more common during the adolescent years and that the unhealthy eating habit can lead to an unhealthy weight. In the 12-week study, instructors guided 257 adolescents from three Houston-area charter schools through a programme of physical activity and nutrition education. About half the students received a snack of peanuts or peanut butter three to four times a week, while the rest received the snack fewer than once a week. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixPeanuts were chosen because nuts are nutrient-dense snacks that promote a feeling of being full. Students spent 12 more weeks maintaining the healthy snacking habit. The findings showed that students who received the snack more regularly experienced a decrease in their overall BMI compared to those who did not receive the regular peanut snack. After school programmes and schools can replace energy dense, unhealthy snacks with peanuts to provide a healthier alternative for children — researchers in the study ensured students did not suffer from nut allergies, the researchers concluded.