Why people give into bribery

first_imgGreed, and not the willingness to return the favour, is the main reason people give in to bribery, according to a study carried out in several settings, including India. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in the US suggest that when incentives are dependent on choices, people accept and reward bribes. On the other hand, when bribes are not contingent on delivering a certain outcome, they do not distort judgment nearly as much. Pairs of participants wrote original jokes and submitted them to a judge, who was tasked with deciding which pun was the funniest. Joke-tellers could blindly submit bribes up to USD 5. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfWhen judges were allowed to keep only one bribe, nearly 90 per cent of them chose the joke that came with the most money. The better joke – as determined by independent evaluators – was selected just 60 per cent of the time. “Quality was basically ignored when the person could pocket the winner’s bribe. Nearly every person went with the money,” said Silvia Saccardo, an assistant professor at CMU. The results were different when the judges could keep both bribes. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThey selected the better joke 84 per cent of the time. In fact, they overwhelmingly chose the person who wrote the funnier joke even when they offered the lower bribe. “When the referees’ payoff didn’t depend on the choice of winner, bribery didn’t distort judgment,” said Saccardo. “And because they sided with quality instead of a higher payoff, it’s an indication that in our data reciprocity isn’t a driving factor when it comes to bribes,” he said. The researchers, including those from the University of California San Diego in the US and WZB Berlin Social Science Center in Germany, created one final scenario in the study that provided a clue that greediness can actually be overcome. Rather than allowing participants to bribe the judge when they submitted their jokes, joke-tellers had to wait two minutes. The extra time allowed the judges to objectively read and evaluate the submissions before seeing any money. They could keep only the winner’s money; they chose the better joke 81 per cent of the time. “When a bribe arrives before you have time to make an unbiased decision, you ‘conveniently’ convince yourself that a subpar proposal is actually the best one,” Saccardo said. “It’s more difficult to justify your own dishonesty once you have already made a decision before receiving a bribe,” said Saccardo. The researchers replicated the main conditions of the study at a market in India using a taste-test. The results were consistent. “Our results suggest that policy interventions that focus on increasing the moral costs of distortion and limit the scope for self-serving biases may provide a successful way to reduce the effectiveness of bribes,” Saccardo said.last_img read more

React introduces Hooks a JavaScript function to allow using React without classes

first_imgYesterday, the React community introduced Hooks, a new feature proposal which has landed in the React 16.7.0-alpha. With the help of Hooks, you will be able “hook into” or use React state and other React features from function components. The biggest advantage is that Hooks don’t work inside classes and let you use React without classes. Why Hooks are being introduced? Easily reuse React components Currently, there is no way to attach reusable behavior to a component. There are some patterns like render props and high-order components that try to solve this problem to some extent. But you need to restructure your components to use them. Hooks make it easier for you to extract stateful logic from a component so it can be tested independently and reused. All of this, without having to change your component hierarchy. You can also easily share them among many components or with the community. Splitting related components In React, each lifecycle method often contains a mix of unrelated logic. And many times the mutually unrelated code that changes together splits apart, but completely unrelated code ends up combined in a single method. This could end up introducing bugs and inconsistencies. Rather than forcing a component split based on lifecycle methods, Hooks allow you to split them into smaller functions based on what pieces are related. Use React without classes One of the hurdles that people face while learning React is classes. You need to understand that how this works in JavaScript is very different from how it works in most languages. You also have to remember to bind the event handlers. Hooks solve these problems by letting you use more of React’s features without classes. React components have always been closer to functions. It embraces functions, but without sacrificing the practical spirit of React. With Hooks, you will get access to imperative escape hatches that don’t require you to learn complex functional or reactive programming techniques. Hooks are completely opt-in and are 100% backward compatible. After receiving the community feedback, which seems to be positive going by their ongoing discussion on RFC, this feature, which is currently in alpha release, will be introduced in React 16.7. To know more in detail about React Hooks, check out their official announcement. Read Next React 16.6.0 releases with a new way of code splitting, and more! InfernoJS v6.0.0, a React-like library for building high-performance user interfaces, is now out RxDB 8.0.0, a reactive, offline-first, multiplatform database for JavaScript released!last_img read more

WestJet Link to serve Lethbridge Lloydminster Medicine Hat Cranbrook Prince George

first_imgTags: WestJet Travelweek Group Posted by CALGARY — WestJet has launched WestJet Link, a new regional air service operating under a capacity purchase agreement (CPA) with Pacific Coastal Airlines.Using Pacific Coastal Airlines’ aircraft painted in WestJet colours, WestJet Link will connect the communities of Lethbridge, Lloydminster, Medicine Hat, Cranbrook and Prince George to WestJet’s expanding network hub at Calgary International Airport.These new routes will add to WestJet’s existing leadership position in Calgary, says the carrier.All WestJet Link flights will be operated by Pacific Coastal using its fleet of 34-seat Saab 340B aircraft. Each aircraft will include six seats available in WestJet Plus, offering guests advanced boarding, no-charge for two checked bags and seating at the front of the aircraft.Flights to Lethbridge will run three times daily starting March 7. Three times daily service will also be available to Medicine Hat and Cranbook, starting May 31 and March 7 respectively. Meanwhile daily service to both Lloydminster and Prince George starts March 14.More news:  Sunwing to further boost Mazatlán service with new flights from Ottawa“A CPA with Pacific Coastal underscores WestJet’s commitment to offering more Canadians access to WestJet’s low fares and growing network,” says Ed Sims, WestJet Executive Vice-President, Commercial. “WestJet Link will be that connection to these communities and will offer more choice and more competition for air travellers, as well as more opportunities to earn and use WestJet Rewards.” WestJet Link to serve Lethbridge, Lloydminster, Medicine Hat, Cranbrook & Prince Georgecenter_img Share Monday, November 27, 2017 << Previous PostNext Post >>last_img read more