Love thy neighbour or opposites attract? Patterns of spatial segregation and association among crested penguin populations during winter

first_imgCompetition for food among populations of closely related species and conspecifics that occur in both sympatry and parapatry can be reduced by interspecific and intraspecific spatial segregation. According to predictions of niche partitioning, segregation is expected to occur at habitat boundaries among congeners and within habitats among conspecifics, while negative relationships in the density of species or populations will occur in areas of overlap. We tested these predictions by modelling the winter distributions of two crested penguin species from three colonies in the south-western Atlantic. Penguins were tracked from two large colonies on the Falkland Islands and one in South Georgia, from where they dispersed through the South Atlantic, Southern Ocean and south-eastern Pacific. Forty macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) from South Georgia and 82 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) from two colonies in the Falkland Islands were equipped with global location sensors which log time and light, allowing positions to be estimated twice-daily, from April to August in 2011. Positions were gridded and converted into maps of penguin density. Metrics of overlap were calculated and density was related to remote-sensed oceanographic variables and competitor density using generalized additive models. Macaroni penguins from western South Georgia and southern rockhopper penguins from Steeple Jason Island, Falkland Islands, were spatially segregated by differences in their habitat preferences thus supporting our first prediction regarding interspecific segregation. However, southern rockhopper penguins from Beauchêne Island showed a marked spatial overlap with macaroni penguins as the two had similar habitat preferences and strong mutual associations when controlling for habitat. Contrary to our predictions relating to intraspecific segregation, southern rockhopper penguins from Beauchêne Island and Steeple Jason Island were segregated by differences in habitat selection. Morphological differentiation probably allows macaroni penguins from South Georgia and southern rockhopper penguins from Beauchêne Island to coexist in areas of spatial overlap, whereas segregation of the two Falkland rockhopper penguin populations may have arisen from two distinct lineages retaining cultural fidelity to ancestral wintering areas.last_img read more

Japan’s Shinzo Abe moves to declare state of emergency in Tokyo, Osaka

first_imgPublic transportation will continue to operate, Abe said, adding that the declaration will not lead to the kind of lockdown seen in some countries overseas. Unlike countries like France — where residents can be fined for leaving their homes — there is no legal power to enforce such requests.The package of economic measures, set to be Japan’s biggest ever, surpassed the 60 trillion yen ($550 billion) recommended by Abe’s ruling party last week. Details of the package are expected to be announced Tuesday.Japan to fight virus with two-stage stimulus planAn emergency declaration enables local officials to take measures such as ordering the cancellation of events, restricting use of facilities such as schools and movie theaters and appropriating land or buildings for temporary medical facilities. The announcement comes after pressure from the public and the medical community. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said he will propose declaring a month-long state of emergency in seven prefectures including Tokyo and Osaka, after a renewed surge of coronavirus cases in some of the nation’s biggest cities.He also announced a much larger-than-expected stimulus package of 108 trillion yen ($988 billion) to support households and businesses struggling from the impact of the pandemic.The declaration, which will also include Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba, Hyogo and Fukuoka prefectures, will be made as soon as Tuesday, Abe said in Tokyo. The move hands powers to local governments to try to contain the spread of the virus that causes Covid-19, including by urging residents to stay at home. After last week saying the situation didn’t yet call for such a move, Abe changed course after cases in Tokyo surged over the weekend.As with many laws in Japan, there are no penalties associated with breaching instructions, except in the case of concealing supplies after the government orders them to be handed over. While much of the order will have no teeth, businesses are likely to further cooperate in closing shops and restaurants, while more residents are expected to stay indoors.A state of emergency can stay in place for as long as two years and can be extended by as much as one more year, under a law updated in March. The prime minister can make the call when the spread of the infection threatens serious damage to the lives and health of the people, as well as to the economy.The move also enables local governments to take steps such as:*. Controlling prices of daily essentials*. Providing loans through government-related financial institutions*. Making compulsory purchases of food and medicinescenter_img Topics :last_img read more

Trump order targets Chinese internet stars TikTok, WeChat

first_imgTopics : Trump’s order cites a threat to “national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States” in taking aim at the companies.”TikTok automatically captures vast swaths of information from its users, including Internet and other network activity information such as location data and browsing and search histories,” the order contended.Data from TikTok could potentially be used by China to track the locations of federal employees and contractors, build dossiers on people for blackmail, and conduct corporate espionage, the order alleged.The TikTok mobile app has been downloaded some 175 million times in the US and more than a billion times around the world. US President Donald Trump on Thursday ordered sweeping restrictions against Chinese-owned social media stars TikTok and WeChat, which could strangle their ability to operate in the United States.Trump’s executive order, which takes effect in 45 days, bars anyone under US jurisdiction from doing business with TikTok or WeChat’s owners.It heaps pressure on ByteDance, TikTok’s parent, to close negotiations to sell to Microsoft and further escalates the Trump administration’s multi-front confrontation with Beijing.center_img The US Senate voted Thursday to bar TikTok from being downloaded onto US government employees’ telephones, intensifying US scrutiny of the popular Chinese-owned video app.The bill passed by the Republican controlled Senate now goes to the House of Representatives, led by Democrats.Several US agencies already bar employees from downloading TikTok onto their phones.Trump and other officials have argued the app could be used for Chinese espionage, a claim repeatedly denied by TikTok, which does not operate within China.Trump, who has locked horns with China on a range of issues including trade and the coronavirus pandemic, has set a deadline of mid-September for TikTok to be acquired by a US firm or be banned in the United States.Microsoft has expanded its talks on TikTok to a potential deal that would include buying the global operations of the fast-growing video-sharing app, the Financial Times reported Thursday.Microsoft declined to comment on the report, after previously disclosing it was considering a deal for TikTok operations in the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.TikTok’s kaleidoscopic feeds of short video clips feature everything from hair dye tutorials to dance routines and jokes about daily life.The company on Thursday announced plans for its first data center for European users, to be set up in Ireland.WeChat is a messaging, social media, and electronic payment platform owned by TenCent Holdings and is reported to have more than a billion users.Trump’s order contended that WeChat captures user data that could then exploited by the Chinese government but provided no evidence that is happening.”WeChat captures the personal and proprietary information of Chinese nationals visiting the United States,” the order read.”Thereby allowing the Chinese Communist Party a mechanism for keeping tabs on Chinese citizens who may be enjoying the benefits of a free society for the first time in their lives.”last_img read more

B’ville boys indoor track finishes second at league meet

first_imgSam Mellinger went 6.82 seconds to beat out Liverpool’s Ryan Dewan (6.93) and win the 55-meter dash, while David Mahar was eighth as he, along with Kenneth Svitak, Malik Davis and Robert Thompson, were a close second in the 4×200 relay in 1:37.44 to F-M’s 1:37.23.Aidan Priest cleared 11 feet in the pole vault for second place. Michaels ran 1,600 meters in 4:36.35 to finish secon as Colin Delaney got third place at 3,200 meters in 9:52.66 as Solomon Holden-Betts was ninth.Waldron, Quinn Peters, Logan Hayes and Nate Hludzenski were second (3:40.74) to F-M (3:39.17) in the 4×400 relay, while Thompson was fourth in the long jump with 19’9 1/2”. Steven Miller threw the shot put 43’1 1/4” and finished second, with Adam Graham third thanks to a toss of 39’9 3/4”. In the weight throw, Miller finished third with 51’3” as Alex Boak was fifth with 48’11” as Owen Weaver had a third-place triple jump of 39’1 1/4”.Tom Hagopian finished eighth and James Cary ninth in the 1,000-meter run, with Tom Bernardin seventh and Bradford Doubleday ninth in the 55 hurdles and Kenneth Svitak ninth in the 300-meter dash.In the girls SCAC Metro meet, B’ville earned 84 points, fourth behind F-M, C-NS and Liverpool, but still earned a string of victories in individual events.Lauren Addario won the 55 sprint by going 7.48 seconds to the 7.62 by Liverpool’s Riley Norris as Karen Ekure, in the 300, went 43.51 seconds to get past F-M’s Fiona Mejico (43.74) and prevail.Ekure, Addario, Hannah Johnson and Courtney Bostic were seconds (1:49.64) to F-M (1:48.15) in the 4×200, Addario adding a third-place triple jump of 34’6”.Allyson Surowick, fifth in the triple jump, earned third place in the 55 hurdles in 9.40 seconds, with Courtney Bostic 10th as Surowick also got a third-place long jump of 16′ 3/4”, Johnson (14’3”) in sixth place.Kathryn Mitts earned second place in the weight throw with a top toss of 32’9 1/2”, while Sarah Smiley was fourth with 27’10 1/2”. Ekure tied for third in the high jump, clearing 4’8”, and Ella Smith tied for second in the pole vault with 7’6”.Madison Kennedy, Carlie Desimone, Avamarie Davis and Hannah Johnson took third in the 4×400 in 4:22.91, Kennedy also taking seventh in the 600 as Anna Conklin was ninth.Bailey Nicholson was sixth in the 1,000 in 3:35.98 and Catherine Thompson ninth, with Lily Horan sixth in the 1,500-meter run, edging Annabelle Horan in seventh place.Lauren Shaler was sixth in the shot put with 25’4”. Sarah Fawwaz and Sage Springsteen were seventh and eighth, respectively, in the 3,000-meter run, and helped the Bees to fifth in the 4×800.Share this:FacebookTwitterLinkedInRedditComment on this Story By only a couple of spots in a couple of different events, the Baldwinsville boys indoor track and field team was denied a victory in last Thursday’s Salt City Athletic Conference Metro division championships at SRC Arena.Still, the Bees earned 100 points, topping everyone except Cicero-North Syracuse, who had 110 points, and beating out Fayetteville-Manlius (92 points) for that runner-up spot.Connor Waldron, at 600 meters, went 1:28.15 to top C-NS’s Evan Breitbeck (1:30.38) by more than two seconds. Waldron, Jack Michaels, Colin Delaney and James Cary went 8:29.05 to pull away from F-M (8:34.04) and win the 4×800 relay.center_img Tags: Baldwinsvilleindoor tracklast_img read more