Hitching a Ride Out of a Gluttonous Black Hole

first_imgSpinning Black Hole. Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss “Ever since Stephen Hawking showed that black holes evaporate,” says Seth Lloyd, an MIT physicist, “people have wondered about the stuff that comes out of them. Is it just garbage, or is it something else?” With his piece published in Physical Review Letters on February 14, Lloyd attempts to show that quantum information does escape black holes, and that this information is useful and can have lasting impacts on how we understand our universe. Explore further Lloyd’s assertion is that information escapes as black holes evaporate in what is known as a final state projection model. Final projection is nonlinear, but it is also considered self-consistent. “It’s funky,” Lloyd explains to Physorg.com, “but it is self-consistent. Anything that happens in a final state projection can ‘legally’ happen in a more conventional quantum mechanical manner.”Final state projection is far from commonly accepted, however. One of the main problems some physicists have with these models is that in order the information has to travel at faster-than-light speeds to escape. While a final state projection model of black hole evaporation preserves unitarity and can even explain entropy as microstates of black hole horizon, getting past the idea of quantum information escaping at such high speeds is difficult. The idea of final state projection and escaping quantum information was put forth in the 1960s, but had been pretty much shunted aside by the 1980s. Despite attempts by a few physicists to substantiate the idea of faster-than-light quantum information escape from black holes, many remain skeptical. Even Lloyd concedes that quantum bits moving faster than light hard to accept. “I admit that it’s strong medicine, things traveling faster than the speed of light.” But he insists his calculations show that it is possible. In a process similar to teleportation, quantum information inside the black hole entangles itself with Hawking radiation. As the black hole evaporates, the information is mostly preserved in the radiation. In Lloyd’s letter, his calculations show that the escaping quantum information has fidelity ≈ (8/3 π)2 . This means that if Lloyd is right, an average of half a bit of information is lost, no matter how many bits escape the black hole. Lloyd’s calculations show that it is possible, in a final state projection scenario, for useful quantum information to escape a black hole. This of itself is a remarkable discovery, considering that it is commonly thought that nothing can escape a black hole, and that fairly useless Hawking radiation is the only product of black hole evaporation. Lloyd’s letter suggests that even the Hawking radiation has a use, as it will carry the entangled bits of quantum information. But it is the implications regarding a theory of quantum gravity that Lloyd feels is especially significant. “We can understand quantum gravity by looking at how things process quantum information, and one of these things can be an evaporating black hole. This [letter] shows an example of applying methods of quantum information about quantum gravity and then getting something back.”Not only does Lloyd believe that black holes can help physicists form a theory of quantum gravity, but he also thinks that final state projection shows how black holes can function as quantum computers. “It becomes a matter of putting information into a hole. The hole processes the information and spits it out through Hawking radiation.” Lloyd pauses, then continues: “We don’t know how to program a black hole, but maybe when we learn more about quantum gravity, we will be able to.”Citation: Seth Lloyd. Almost Certain Escape from Black Holes in Final State Projection Models, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 061302 (2006) By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Citation: Hitching a Ride Out of a Gluttonous Black Hole (2006, February 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-02-hitching-gluttonous-black-hole.html The entire sky in X-rays This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Minnesota researchers findings on dark matter jibe with Italys DAMALIBRA claims

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Sparking controversy in the small circle of physicists working to resolve the issue of whether dark matter actually exists, Juan Collar, spokesman for the CoGeNT project in the Soudan mine in Minnesota, spoke recently at the American Physical Society meeting and disclosed that his team has found results similar to those experienced by the DAMA/LIBRA team in Italy over the past several years, which show an excess of low energy interactions in their germanium crystal detectors, that his group can’t explain any other way but to ascribe it to the existence of dark matter. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further The DAMA/LIBRA team has insisted for 12 years that the data it has found with its detectors backs up the theory that not only does dark matter exist, but that it can be shown to exist by seasonal changes in the amount of recoil hitting in their germanium detectors. The idea is that because the Earth moves and supposed clouds of dark matter don’t, there should be times of higher activity when the Earth is moving into or through an area of dense dark matter, and lower activity when it’s not. This is the basis of the argument the DAMA/LIBRA team has had to explain the seasonal changes in the number of hits they see.The problem with all this though is that there are other teams that have not been able to reproduce the results shown first by the DAMA/LIBRA team, and now by those with the CoGeNT team (most notably the Swiss XENON100 team.) Making the whole argument even more sensational is that the CoGeNT team actually set out to prove to the world that the DAMA/LIBRA team was wrong.All of the teams are working to prove or disprove the notion that theoretical particles of dark matter, called WIMPS, exist and thus can be used, or not to back up or refute many other theories that serve to explain many of the unexplained phenomena that exist in the universe; such as what holds everything together. Some theories suggest that if dark matter does truly exist, it likely makes up eighty percent of everything there is; if it doesn’t however, a lot of physicists will be going back to the drawing board.One thing is certain however, and that is much more research will have to be done, both by those that are seeing results and those that aren’t, before anyone can even come close to claiming they understand the invisible forces that make the universe what it is. Citation: Minnesota researcher’s findings on dark matter jibe with Italy’s DAMA/LIBRA claims (2011, May 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-minnesota-dark-jibe-italy-damalibra.html New Limits on the Origin of Dark Matterlast_img read more

Novel catalyst used to make styrene in one step

first_img Explore further Prior work in designing a rhodium-based catalyst for a reaction that has a similar carbon-hydrogen activation step was adapted with an ethylene coordinated to the rhodium complex. The ligand framework likely serves to protect rhodium from oxidative damage and may serve other important functions in the mechanism. With this ligand serving to protect the metal, they decided to use a Cu(II) salt as an oxidant because there is precedent for the recovery of Cu(I) and re-oxidizing it to obtain Cu(II), thus enabling the possibility of recycling the oxidant.Testing of their catalyst with Cu(OAc)2 at 150oC in benzene led to 58 to 62 turnovers in twenty-four hours. Characterization showed high selectivity for styrene, and the copper salt as the limiting reagent. The reaction was optimized by testing various copper salts, temperatures, and concentration of ethylene gas. Cu(OAc)2, while it causes a slower reaction rate than other copper salts, provided a more stable reaction process. Additionally, while the reaction rate did increase with increasing temperature, the catalyst degraded when the temperature was above 180oC. Finally, the reaction rate increased as ethylene pressure was increased.The optimized reaction conditions provided a near-quantitative yield of styrene with a large turnover number for the catalyst, and the catalyst maintained its integrity for up to 96 hours. The best turnover number observed was at least 800. Kinetic studies showed that this reaction appears to be first-order with respect to ethylene concentration, which is unique to this particular catalyst. Additional kinetic studies revealed that there is a kinetic isotope effect with kH/kD ~ 3.1, which is consistent with other transition metal-mediated C-H activation reactions. While further studies need to be done to analyze the reaction mechanism, this paper provides a framework by which a novel rhodium complex allows for a one-step reaction to form styrene from benzene and ethylene. (Phys.org)—Styrene is an important industrial chemical. It is the precursor to polystyrene which is used in various every day plastic products, like disposable cups, packaging, and insulation. Over 18.5m tons of styrene is produced industrially around the world. Typically, styrene synthesis begins with benzene and ethylene, and involves a multi-step process under harsh reaction conditions and often leads to unwanted by-products. More information: “A rhodium catalyst for single-step styrene production from benzene and ethylene” Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa2260ABSTRACTRising global demand for fossil resources has prompted a renewed interest in catalyst technologies that increase the efficiency of conversion of hydrocarbons from petroleum and natural gas to higher-value materials. Styrene is currently produced from benzene and ethylene through the intermediacy of ethylbenzene, which must be dehydrogenated in a separate step. The direct oxidative conversion of benzene and ethylene to styrene could provide a more efficient route, but achieving high selectivity and yield for this reaction has been challenging. Here, we report that the Rh catalyst (FlDAB)Rh(TFA)(η2–C2H4) [FlDAB is N,N′-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA is trifluoroacetate] converts benzene, ethylene, and Cu(II) acetate to styrene, Cu(I) acetate, and acetic acid with 100% selectivity and yields ≥95%. Turnover numbers >800 have been demonstrated, with catalyst stability up to 96 hours. © 2015 Phys.org Journal information: Science In research that aims to streamline and optimize styrene synthesis Benjamin A. Vaughan, Michael S. Webster-Gardiner, Thomas R. Cundari, and T. Brent Gunnoe from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Virginia and the Center for Advanced Modeling in the Department of Chemistry at the University of North Texas have devised a single-step synthesis of styrene using a novel rhodium catalyst. Their work appears in Science.The production of styrene, or vinyl arenes in general, involves benzene alkylation. This is typically done under harsh conditions involving high temperatures and either a Friedel-Crafts or zeolite catalyst. This process typically involves poly-alkylated bi-products. Additionally, the alkyl substituent will then need to be oxidized to form the vinyl group, which is usually accomplished with a metal oxide at high temperatures. The products are the target vinyl arene and hydrogen gas, as well as any bi-products from poly-alkylation. Products from poly-alkylation are converted to ethylbenzene in a trans-alkylation step, which follows the alkylation reaction.Prior research from this group, found that this synthetic process can be streamlined using a platinum catalyst for the alkylation of benzene, and the alkyl group will subsequently undergo beta-hydride elimination, forming free styrene. However, this process degrades the platinum catalyst, likely because the platinum ion further reduces to platinum metal during the beta-elimination phase of the reaction. To make this one-step process industrially feasible, they need to find an optimal catalyst. Ideally, this catalyst would directly vinylate the benzene ring rather than initial alkylation followed by oxidation of the alkyl group. Additionally this catalyst would not lead to multiple side reactions and have a high turnover number even in harsh oxidative conditions and in the presence of highly reactive metal hydrides. Furthermore, industrially favorable mechanisms would involve recovering and recycling the oxidant using air or oxygen.For this paper, Vaughan et al. designed a catalyst with rhodium rather than platinum in hopes that the less favorable reduction of Rh(I) to elemental rhodium compared to the reduction of Pt(II) would maintain the integrity of the catalyst. Ball-and-stick model of the styrene molecule, C8H8, as found in the crystal structure. Credit: Ben Mills/public domain Study could lead to improved catalysts for producing hydrogen fuel from waste biomass This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Novel catalyst used to make styrene in one step (2015, May 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-catalyst-styrene.htmllast_img read more

Aluminumbased electrochemical cell captures and sequesters carbon emissions and generates electricity

first_imgArchitectures of metal/CO2 electrochemical cells as capture systems. Credit: Science Advances 20 Jul 2016: Vol. 2, no. 7, e1600968. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600968 (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers at Cornell University has created an aluminum-based electrochemical cell that captures and sequesters carbon emissions while simultaneously generating a large amount of electricity. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, Wajdi Al Sadat and Lynden Archer describe the cell, how it works and why they believe it is better than other carbon-capturing cells that have been developed to date. Human beings have been pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in large amounts since the advent of the industrial age, leading to global warming. Scientists have been working overtime to figure out a way to reduce the amounts of the gas that we emit, but while there have been great improvements, far too much is still going into the air. Meanwhile, other scientists are taking a different approach—they are looking for ways to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in an economically feasible way. In this new effort, the researchers at Cornell report on cell technology they developed that differs significantly from the approach used by others.To create a cell that removes carbon dioxide, researchers have tried using magnesium, lithium or sodium as an anode—the results to date have worked to some extent, but they produce carbonates, which are not very useful. To get around that problem, the researchers instead used aluminum foil to make the anode—the cathode was made of stainless steel mesh and an ionic liquid with some aluminum chloride salt in it was used as the electrolyte.In testing their cell, the duo found that it was capable of generating up to 13 ampere-hours for every gram of carbon that it captured. They point out that it did so without the need for any sort of catalyst and that it was done at room temperature. In addition, the output from the system consisted of aluminum oxalate, which they noted can be used to make oxalic acid, a material that is commonly used in several industries, which means it could be easily sold.The researchers acknowledge that their cell has one serious drawback at the moment—it won’t work if water is present in the mix of gasses it pulls in, a situation that would exist in most real-world locations. They plan to search for another electrolyte that is less sensitive to moisture to solve that problem. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: The O2-assisted Al/CO2 electrochemical cell: A system for CO2 capture/conversion and electric power generation, Science Advances 20 Jul 2016: Vol. 2, no. 7, e1600968. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600968AbstractEconomical and efficient carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration technologies are a requirement for successful implementation of global action plans to reduce carbon emissions and to mitigate climate change. These technologies are also essential for longer-term use of fossil fuels while reducing the associated carbon footprint. We demonstrate an O2-assisted Al/CO2 electrochemical cell as a new approach to sequester CO2 emissions and, at the same time, to generate substantial amounts of electrical energy. We report on the fundamental principles that guide operations of these cells using multiple intrusive electrochemical and physical analytical methods, including chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and coupled thermogravimetric analysis–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. On this basis, we demonstrate that an electrochemical cell that uses metallic aluminum as anode and a carbon dioxide/oxygen gas mixture as the active material in the cathode provides a path toward electrochemical generation of a valuable (C2) species and electrical energy. Specifically, we show that the cell first reduces O2 at the cathode to form superoxide intermediates. Chemical reaction of the superoxide with CO2 sequesters the CO2 in the form of aluminum oxalate, Al2(C2O4)3, as the dominant product. On the basis of an analysis of the overall CO2 footprint, which considers emissions associated with the production of the aluminum anode and the CO2 captured/abated by the Al/CO2-O2 electrochemical cell, we conclude that the proposed process offers an important strategy for net reduction of CO2 emissions.last_img read more

Kids take on Dilli stage

first_imgLaunched in 1998, Jashn-e-bachpan — the national theatre festival for children — is back. The festival is presented by the Sanskar Rang Toli, an outreach programme for children created by the country’s premier theatre school, National School of Drama (NSD).NSD, in order to contribute to the growth and development of children’s theatre across the country, hosts the festival which promises a blend of fantasy, history, comedy and social issues.Announcing the 11th edition of the festival recently at a press conference, National School of Drama director Anuradha Kapur said the focus of the festival this year was on theatre by special children, with three performances from Assam, Bengal and Delhi. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting”We live in our own world, but we don’t understand what happens in another’s world. The troupe from Bengal is made of children with speech and hearing impairment, but they have performed a play by Rabindranath Tagore so beautifully that it is an inspiration,’ Kapur said.The 10 day festival will feature 17 plays in nine different languages performed by children. It will showcase plays from all over the country. Three plays will be performed by them including Rabindranath Tagore’s play Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix Dakghar which is the opening performance.  Dastaan-e-Dilli, another performance by special children, will mark the end of the festival. The play narrates a  story of Krishna and his childhood experiences on the banks of the Yamuna river. It will end with a panorama of Dilli seen today and tomorrow through the eyes of special children.’Interactive sessions with play directors and artistes will take place at the festival with the aim to absorb energies, skills and processes in order to gain inspiration for future works through these sessions,’ Kapoor added. The festival will see performances directed by Dadi D Pudumjee, Feisal Alkazi and Radhika Alkazi, Swatilekha Sengupta, KG Krishnamurthy, Bhagirathi, Susanta Mondal, Kiran Bhat and Dr Sripad Bhat, N Jadumani Singh, Jaimini Pathak, Mandya Ramesh, Anurupa Roy, Krishna Bhuyan, Saggherr Loadhii, Kannan, Manish Saini, Rajiv Krishnann and Bijon Mondal.The participating groups at Jashn-e-bachpan 2012 are from different regions of the country and will perform in various Indian languages at Abhimanch, Sammukh and Shri Ram Centre. The plays will be performed in Hindi, Bangla, Assamese, Kannada, Marathi, Malayalam, Nepali, Manipuri, Tamil and English and most of the plays have subtitles.Watch out for it.last_img read more

Art and empty spaces

first_imgIt is believed that empty spaces have the most energy fields than anything else in the universe; and all the object, matter, particles we know, constitute under ten percent of the universe. It is this eternal vastness and the unseen energy fields that is brought together at ‘Friendly Strangers: Fields of the Universe’ a two man show by Shridhar Iyer and Ajay Narayan. The show is curated by Rahul Bhattacharya. Iyer has been exploring the unknown energy and force of the Universe primarily through the medium of painting and drawing. Highly experimental in life and work, Iyer has often made forays into installation based art practices. Narayan has been painting to invoke concealed, obscure descriptions of the visible world. His recent works are an engagement with the vastness of space, the incomprehensible eternal dark matter within which planets, stars and galaxies float.last_img read more

Rightly said

first_imgCRY works towards sustainable change, by ensuring all children receive their rights. ‘Vote for Child Rights’ campaign aims to pursue political candidates to ensure due emphasis is given to child rights in their party manifestos. The mission was to make politicians stand up and take notice.Instead of a simple pledge, BBH India did something unique and created a vote bank. Strength in numbers encourages the audience, and a vote bank in itself is what politicians pay attention to. BBH created a campaign around the childmark, a yellow dot symbolising your vote for child rights. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The film shows how the yellow childmark and a vote bank can make all the difference. Essential child rights were highlighted including the right to education, nutrition, protection and most importantly, the right to a childhood.Emphasizing on the importance to reach out to politicians and public, Anita Bala Sharad, Director, Resource Mobilisation, CRY said, ‘This campaign aims to urge politicians to put children first and the general public to vote for a party that does so. While several nationwide initiatives and policies are in place to protect children against violation of their rights, there is a visible lack of political will to implement the same. We wanted to highlight the support we can garner from public to ensure that the parties take notice and that the best interest of the child be put at the centre of all policy, legislation and practice.’last_img read more

Vision of the youth

first_imgIn the season of a crucial forthcoming election in Delhi, the play awakens the thought of being a leader of self, rather than following the opportunistic political ambitions which leads to anarchy of party based motives. Running successfully for consecutive two days with packed house in Muktadhara Auditorium  on January 17 – 18 , Woh Nahi Gandhi has been termed as a challenge to existing saffron coloured politics as well as dynastic inclinations on the other side. It throws open a quest to find a leader within self by identifying our roots and passing on the treasury of civilisation to next generation.On the background of a riot hit area and marginalised communities, the story of this play is definitely an exceptional bold statement in this politically heated atmosphere, where the ruling party as well as as unruly opposition need to take a call on the definite need and vision for youth, rather than leaving them astray with opium of religion and power.last_img read more

Snag in flight throws passengers into tizzy

first_imgKolkata: Passengers landing at the city airport were gripped by a sense of fear as they felt a sudden jerk when the Singapore Airlines flight in which they were travelling, suddenly came to a halt on the runway with a loud sound. The 200-odd passengers had to wait for more than half an hour before they could come out of the flight.According to sources in the airport, the Singapore Airlines SQ 516 landed at Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International (NSCBI) Airport at around 10.28 pm on Saturday night, but passengers could not vacate the flight as it had developed a hydraulic snag. The hydraulic leakage resulted in drainage of fuel from the flight on the runway. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsA senior official said that the snag had developed a few minutes before the flight was scheduled to land, when the fuel started leaking. As it landed, the nose wheel of the flight got locked and the flight came to a halt with a sudden jerk. The pilot stopped the engine of the airline to mitigate any risk. After sometime, the flight was towed across the runway by a special vehicle. “The passengers could not be taken near the aerobridge. They were brought out of the airport in a special bus,” a source informed.A spokesperson of the airport, however, said that there was not much of a problem as the alternate runway was handed over for operation soon. “There was no impact on any other flight as the alternate runway was put in use. The runway was handed over back for operation after being vacated, proper cleaning of the fuel leakage and inspection,” the spokesperson said.last_img read more

Woven stories

first_imgSantosh Kumar Gangwar, Union Minister of State for Textiles (IC), gave away the prestigious Ajay Shankar Memorial Awards for the best display of stands in various categories at the 39th edition of the Indian Handicrafts and Gifts Fair (Spring) on February 22. Sanjay Kumar, IAS, Special Secretary, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, Vinod Johari, President of IHGF (Spring), Vice Presidents Shahnawaz Khan and Vishal Bohra, Rakesh Kumar,  Chairman of India Expo Centre and Mart and Executive Director – EPCH and Lekhraj Maheshwari, Chairman- EPCH were also present during the ceremony. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The Ajay Shankar Memorial Awards were instituted in the memory of late Ajay Shankar, former Development Commissioner (handicrafts) who was one of the major motivators for establishing this fair. The awards were conferred in six product categories.  While giving away the awards the minister congratulated all the awardees for receiving the awards and appreciated their excellent workmanship.  He further said that handicrafts sector is the second largest sector after agriculture and Government has plans to give boost to this sector. He also informed the gathering that Ministry of Textiles has urged the Prime Minister of India to attach MGNREGA with the handicrafts sector so that artisans and craftpersons can be directly benefitted and their conditions of livelihood can be improved.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHe said that while there’s strong competition from neighbouring countries including China, the Indian handicrafts sector has its own distinct identity and place in the world market. The minister was of the view that handicrafts sector is likely to receive very good support in the next budget.Over 3800 buyers including over 900 buying agents from 60 countries have been registered during the first two days of the show. Impressive numbers come from USA(469), Canada (141), Israel (42), Germany (215), Sweden (148), UK (230), Russia (25), Australia (146), Japan (196), China (53), Denmark (73), South Africa (72), Brazil (25) and Argentina (15).last_img read more